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Since the late nineteenth century, it has been well-known that individuals can vary widely in their responses to the same medication. Yet, accurately predicting and addressing the effects of that variability during drug development has continued to bedevil researchers, drug sponsors, and regulators.
FDA regulations, ISO standards, and GHTF guidance documents do not prescribe the number of runs required for process validation activities. Industry has typically used three batches during the process performance qualification phase to demonstrate that a process is capable of consistently delivering quality product, but the so-called "rule of three" is no longer appropriate for process validation activities.
This article will discuss how to establish sample sizes for process validation when the testing required is expensive or destructive. Of all the approaches discussed in this series, this one is probably the most difficult to address and statistically justify.
The first article in this series, Risk-Based Approaches To Establishing Sample Sizes For Process Validation (June 2016), provided and established the relationship between risk and sample size. This article will demonstrate the use of lot tolerance percent defective (LTPD) to establish sample sizes for process validation.
The first article in this series, Risk-Based Approaches To Establishing Sample Sizes For Process Validation (June 2016), provided and established the relationship between risk and sample size. This article will demonstrate the use of variable sampling plans to establish sample sizes for process validation.